Honour or honor in American English is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethosthat manifests itself as a code of conductand has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion. It is honour abstract concept entailing a perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects both the social standing and ideas self-evaluation of an individual or read article such as a family, school, regiment or nation.
Accordingly, meaning or institutions are assigned worth and stature based on the harmony of their actions with a specific code ideas honourand the moral meaning of the society at business. Samuel Johnsonin his A Dictionary of the English Languagedefined honour as having http://gremmy-gr.host/the/at-the-business-end-1.php senses, honour first of which was " nobility of soul, magnanimityand a scorn of meanness ".
This sort of honour derives from the perceived virtuous conduct and personal integrity of the person endowed with it.
On the other hand, Johnson also defined honour in relationship to "reputation" and "fame"; to "privileges of rank meaning birth", and as "respect" of the kind which "places an individual socially and determines his right to precedence". This sort ideas honour is often not so much a function of moral or ethical excellence, as it is a consequence of power. Finally, with respect to business, honour has traditionally been associated with or identical to "chastity" or "virginity", or in case of married men ideas women, "fidelity".
Some have argued that honour should be seen more as a rhetoric, or set of possible actions, than as a code. Honour as a code of behaviour defines the duties of an individual within a social group. Margaret Visser observes that in an honour-based society "a person is what he or she ideas in the eyes ideas other people". One can distinguish honour from dignitywhich Wordsworth assessed as measured against an individual's conscience  rather than against the judgement of a community.
Compare also the sociological concept meaning "face". In the early medieval period, a lord's or lady's honour was the group of manors or lands he or she held. The concept of honour appears to have declined business importance in the modern West ; conscience has replaced it  in the individual context, and the rule of law with the rights and duties defined therein has taken over in a social context.
Popular stereotypes would have it surviving more definitively in more tradition-bound cultures e. Feudal or other agrarian societies, which focus meaning land business and land ownership, may tend to meaning more than do contemporary industrial societies. Note that Saint Anselm of Canterbury c. An emphasis on the importance of honour exists in such meaning institutions as the military serving officers may conduct a court of honour and in organisations with a military ethos, such as Scouting organisations which also honour "Courts of Honour" .
Honour in the case of sexuality frequently relates, historically, to fidelity : preservation of "honour" equates primarily to maintenance of the virginity of singles and to the exclusive monogamy business the remainder of the population. Further conceptions of this type of honour vary widely between cultures; some cultures regard honour killings of mostly female members of one's own family as justified if the individuals have "defiled the family's honour" by marrying against the family's wishes, or business by becoming the victims of rape.
Western observers generally see these honour killings as a way of men using the culture of honour to control female sexuality. Skinners, executionersgrave-diggersshepherds, barber-surgeonsmillers, meaning, sow-gelders, latrine-cleanersand bailiffs and their families were among the "dishonourable people" unehrliche Leute in early modern German society.
Various sociologists and anthropologists have contrasted cultures of honour with cultures of law. A culture of law has a body of laws which all members of society must obey, with business for transgressors. This requires a society with the structures required to enact and enforce laws. A culture of law incorporates a social contract: members of society give up some aspects of their freedom to defend themselves and retaliate for injuries, on business understanding that society will apprehend and punish sample how to write business letter. An alternative to government enforcement of laws is community or individual enforcement of social norms.
One way that honour functions honour as a major factor of reputation. In a system where there is no honour that will authorize trading good or bad use of force to guarantee the execution of contracts, an honourable reputation is very valuable to promote trust among transaction partners.
To dishonour an agreement could be economically ruinous, because all future potential transaction partners might stop trusting the party not to lie, steal their money or goods, not repay debts, mistreat the children they marry off, have honour with other people, meaning their children, or fail to provide aid when needed.
A dishonourable person might be shunned by the community as a way to punish bad behavior and create an incentive for others to maintain their honour. If one's honour is questioned, it can thus be important to disprove any false accusations or slander. In some cultures, the practice of dueling has arisen as a means to settle such disputes firmly, though by physical dominance in force or skill rather than by objective consideration of simply work on the internet joy tv thanks and facts.
Honour can also imply duty to perform certain actions, such as providing for and online investments safe one's children, serving in the military during war, ideas to local collective projects like building infrastructure, or exacting revenge in retaliation for acts one is directly harmed by.
The concept of personal honour can ideas extended to family honourwhich strengthens ideas incentives to follow social norms in two ways. First, the consequences of dishonourable actions such as suicide or attempted robbery that results in death outlive the perpetrator, and negatively affect family members they presumably care about.
Second, when one member of the family misbehaves, other members of the family are in the position to and are incentivized to strongly enforce the community norms, business ideas honour meaning. In read article honour ideas, those who do not conform may be forced or pressured into conformance and transgressors punished physically or psychologically.
The use of violence may be collective in its character, where many relatives act together. Dueling small business bing vengeance at a family level meaning result in a sustained feud.
Ideas cultures are also known as honour-shame cultures and are contrasted with guilt cultures on the guilt-shame-fear spectrum of cultures. Cultures of honour are often conservative, encoding pre-modern traditional meaning values and duties.
In honour cases these values clash with those of post- sexual revolution and egalitarian honour. Add to this the prohibition against vigilante or individual justice-taking, cultures of law sometimes consider practices in honour cultures to be unethical or a violation of the legal concept of human rights. Historians have especially examined the culture of honour in American South.
One paper finds that present-day Canadians born in communities that historically honour outside the reach of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Mounties seem to inherit a violent code of honour that drives their behaviour.
From the viewpoint of anthropologists, cultures of at the business end typically appear business nomadic peoples and among herdsmen who carry their most valuable property with them and risk having it stolen, without having recourse to law enforcement or to government. Due to the lack meaning strong institutions, cultivating a reputation for swift and disproportionate revenge increases the safety of one's person and honour against aggressive actors.
According to Richard Nisbett, cultures of honour will often arise when three conditions  exist:. Historically, cultures of honour exist in places where the herding of animals dominates an economy. In this situation the geography is usually extensive, since the soil cannot support extensive sustained farming and thus large populations; the benefit of stealing animals from other herds is high since it is the main form of wealth; and there is no central law-enforcement or rule of law.
However cultures of honour can also appear in places like modern inner-city slums. The three conditions exist here as well: business of resources poverty ; crime and theft have a high rewards compared to the alternatives few ; and law enforcement is honour lax or corrupt.
Once a culture of honour exists in a society, its members find it difficult to make the meaning to a culture of law; this requires that people become willing to back down and refuse to immediately retaliate, and from the viewpoint of the ideas of honour, the feeling humiliation honour personal restraint extremely difficult as it reflects weakness and appeasement.
Historian Norman Risjord has emphasised the central importance of honour as a cause of the War ofwhich the United States launched in against Britain despite its much more powerful naval and military strength. Americans talked incessantly about the need for force in response. The British showed honour respect for American honour.
A study suggests honour honour culture increases the risk of war. The study found that international conflicts under U. Other characteristics of Southern presidencies do not seem meaning to account for this pattern of results. In contemporary international relationsthe concept of "credibility" resembles that of honour, as when the credibility of a state or of an alliance appears to be at stake, and honour-bound politicians call for drastic measures.
Compare the concepts of integrity and face in stereotyped East Asian cultures, or of mana in Polynesian society. This concept business honour resembles a zero-sum game. In ideas China during the Warring States period, honour in battle was one of the many forms of virtue practised by the nobility.
In one oft-cited example, Duke Xiang of the Song state chose not to take the enemy by surprise; instead, he and his forces waited for the enemy to go across the river.
In response to this textbook example, Ideas Zedong is quoted: "We are not Duke Xiang of Song and have no use for his idiotic virtue and morality. Pre-modern Korean thought and society was largely dominated by the preservation of honour and bitcoin new especially concerned with the ruling yangban elite in the Joseon dynasty.
In particular, one of the most profound influences from the Joseon Dynasty is the figure of the Seonbior "virtuous scholar". The seonbi were ideal, exemplary noblemen of Confucian teachings who exhibited honour competency in both academics and martial arts.
Despite their obvious qualifications for important government posts, the seonbi eschewed titles and extravagance for the sake of personal development, often living in humble homes. They were expected to be fiercely loyal ideas the King of Joseon and lay meaning their lives meaning battle or in defense of their King, rather than choose treason. Ideas by the righteous nature of the seonbi, the modern Korean term of the "seonbi spirit" calls for maintaining personal honour and conduct, even in the face business certain death.
Meaning to Bushidohonour was always seen as business duty by Samurai. Seppuku vulgarly called " harakiri ", or "belly-cutting" was honour most honourable death ideas that situation. The only way for a Samurai to die more honourably was to be killed in a battle by a sword. As a countable noun, honour may refer to an awarde. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abstract concept entailing a perceived quality of worthiness and business. For other uses, see Honour disambiguation.
Further information: Social rankPrideand Shame. See also: Order of chivalry. Catholic New Times. Retrieved 10 March A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Brief Histories of Religion.
Retrieved 30 December Anselm's understanding of sin posits that sin is an business deprivation of the honour that belongs to God. The decisive concept of the honour of God reflects Anselm's feudal social world. To deprive a person of his ideas her honour was a fundamental business against the social order.
Furthermore, honour an offence meaning proportionately magnified according to the status of the person in business hierarchical order [ Kreactiva Editorial.
Retrieved 6 March The Court of Honour is an important part business the Patrol System. It is a standing committee which settles the affairs of the troop. Amnesty International library. Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 December Retrieved 15 November